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В.Г. Луконин. Культура сасанидского Ирана. Иран в III-V вв. Очерки по истории культуры. М.: 1969. 244 с. (Культура народов Востока. Материалы и исследования.)В.Г. Луконин

Культура сасанидского Ирана.

Иран в III-V вв. Очерки по истории культуры.

// М.: 1969. 244 с. Серия: Культура народов Востока.

Карта, размещённая на форзацах.

Оглавление

 

Предисловие. — 5

 

Глава I. Источники. — 7

Глава II. Образование государства. — 27

Глава III. Шапур. Завоевания на Западе. — 50

Глава IV. Картир и Мани. Создание государственной религии. — 70

Глава V. Варахран II и Нарсе. Борьба за власть. — 101

Глава VI. Шапур II и Арташир II. События на Востоке. — 124

Глава VII. Раннесасанидские монеты и рельефы. — 152

 

Генеалогическая таблица царей династии Сасанидов. — 197

Описание монет к табл. I-XIV. — 200

Указатель имён. — 202

Указатель географических названий. — 205

Указатель титулов и терминов. — 207

Список сокращений. — 208

Список цитированной литературы. — 209

 

Список иллюстраций и таблиц. — 215

 

Summary. — 217

Таблицы. — 219

 


В некоторых транскрипциях подчёркивание заменяет точку под соответствующим знаком.


 

Предисловие.   ^

 

Эта книга написана в основном на материале раннесасанидских эпиграфических источников, источников по истории сасанидской религии, памятников культуры, и особенно тех из них, которые сравнительно недавно были введены в науку. Её подзаголовок — «Очерки» — полностью зависит от характера этих источников: некоторые периоды освещаются ими достаточно полно, но другие по-прежнему неясны.

 

Специфичность источников определила и выбор тех проблем, которым уделено здесь основное внимание: книга посвящена преимущественно анализу внутренней истории, идеологии и культуре Ирана в III-V вв. Вопросы политической и социально-экономической истории рассматриваются здесь гораздо менее подробно. Они затрагиваются лишь в той мере, в какой новые материалы позволяют дополнить факты, уже приведённые в систему и исследованные в целой серии работ, среди которых наиболее важны книги Н.В. Пигулевской («Города Ирана в раннем средневековье») и М.М. Дьяконова («Очерк истории древнего Ирана»).

 

Некоторая специфичность в методе исследования — в попытке постоянно сопоставлять или противопоставлять данные письменных памятников с памятниками материальной культуры — потребовала включить в книгу в качестве самостоятельного раздела классификацию и хронологическую систематизацию сасанидских монет III-V вв. Необходимость такого раздела возникла потому, что монеты помимо их большого значения как источника по идеологии, политической истории и истории культуры сасанидского Ирана являются и основой для датировки всех тех памятников культуры, которые изучаются в книге.

 

Работа над нумизматическими коллекциями Государственного Эрмитажа и Государственного Исторического музея (ГИМ), коллекциями, количественно и качественно намного превосходящими все известные мне зарубежные собрания, была бы невозможна без постоянной помощи моих коллег: заведующего Отделом нумизматики ГИМ С.А. Яниной, научного сотрудника Государственного Музея изобразительных искусств им. А.С. Пушкина М.И. Камера, заведующего Отделом нумизматики Государственного Эрмитажа А.А. Быкова, научного сотрудника того же отдела И.Г. Добровольского.

 

Результаты моих изысканий в области истории и культуры Сасанидов постоянно обсуждались на занятиях семинара, руководимого моим учителем К.В. Тревер, и на заседаниях Отдела Востока. Всем моим друзьям и коллегам я благодарен за большую помощь в моей работе.

 


 

Summary   ^

 

The main sources of this book are the rock inscriptions (the inscription of Shapur I on «Ka’be-i Zardušt», four inscriptions of the high priest, Kartir, the Sasanian inscriptions of Persepolis, and others), reliefs, gems and coins of the Persian shahanshahs of the 3rd — 5th centuries. The nature of the sources determined the basic problems: the formation of the Sasanian State, the development of state religion, the history of the internal, dynastic fight for power, and also the formation and development of the so-called «official art». Questions of political and socio-economic history are considered in less detail and only when the sources used in this book amplify already known facts.

 

To determine the link between the diverse facts (for the period from the 3rd — 5th centuries we are only concerned with these ones) we can say that coins and] reliefs have the monument of greatest importance which «proclaim» the dynasty and its basic political and ideological ideas. An analisis is given in the book af the collection of Sasanian coins in the Hermitage and the Moscow State Historical Museum (there are over 4000 specimens which can be attributed to the 3rd — 5th centuries in this collection).

 

Analysis has revealed that differences between the Obv. and Rv. of coins — sometimes very minor details, such as the ductus of legends or minor iconographie details in the shahanshah’s portrait did not depend on the mint or the region of the impire in which they were coined. In Sasanian numismatics, there-ore, we find that model were widely disturbed throughout all the mints of the empire and were fairly accurate copied.

 

The variations of the Obv. and Rv. of coins had therefore a state significance. By means of a formal classification of the coins and their systématisation in chronological order (relying on the most varied sources) certain types of coins can be narrowed down to some specific date — sometimes down to 5-10 years and in this way can be determined the date at which other features appear on the Obv. or Rv. of coins. For instance, the coins of Artashir I fall into 6 categories for the Obv. and two types for the Rv. (These categories are established on the basis of the iconography of the shahanshah’s crowns and other attributes of power, legends, representations of the altar on the Rv. etc.). The coins can be attributed to the following dates: type I circa 220-227 A.D., type IIa — 227 A.D., types IIб, в, г, д circa 230-235 A.D., types III, IV, Va, Vб — 235-242, type VI circa 242-243 A.D. (chronological classification is based on examples of Obv.). Coins of Varahran II’s reign have been divided into ten types for the Obv. and 5 types for the Rv. For the types I-IV the dates 276-283 A.D. are suggested and for types V-X — 284-293 A.D.

 

Sasanian reliefs are classified in a similar manner. The iconography of persons represented on them and other sources allows one to determine accurately not only actual events which they depict but also the persons depicted (excluding kings and gods). This attempt to determine who is precisely depicted sometimes permits one to say when this or that relief was made i. e. to date it not according to the reign of the king represented as is customary but accurately to the nearest five or ten years. Thus is turns out, for instance, that the famous relief depicting the investiture of Artashir I in Naqsh-i Rustam was made towards the end of his reign, that the reliefs of Varahran II can be devided into two specific groups

(217/218)

moreover the lates of them is a relief, representing Varaharan II and his courtier and the earliest a small representation of the investiture ceremony in Barm-i Dilak. Several reliefs are receive a new dating. For instance the scene of the triumph at Bishapur which is ussually assigned to Shapur I (E. Herzfeld) or Shapur II (R. Girshman) is seen as a scene depicting the suppression of the rising in East Persia instigated in 283 by the king of Sakastan Hormizd. On this relief Varaharan II is represented as the victor.

 

By resorting to this information we can connect isolated facts in a coherent order. Chapter VI is based on material of the so called «Kushano-Sasanian» coins and the Sasanian reliefs. It is devoted to the conquest of the Kushan territory by Sasanian shahs. Attribution, date and interpretation of these events is based mainly on the formal classification of the «Kushano-Sasanian» coins (the beginning of the conquests was inc. 360 A.D. and the final conquest and the issuing of gold «Kushano-Sasanian» coins in the years 379-380 A.D.). In this chapter an attempt is made to examine the problem of the conflict in the last of Zoroastrianisme with the religions and doctrines which were widespread throughout the Kushan state and of the results of this conflict as represented and depicted on «Kushano-Sasanian» coins.

 

Other very important sources which can be used to link these diverse facts are the lists of nobles and priests attached to the court of Sasanian shahanshahs during the III-IV centuries. In the main material of this purpose is taken from the inscriptions of Shapur I on «Ka’be-i Zardust», from the inscriptions of Narse in Paikuli and in Persepolis and from the inscriptions on gems.

 

The remaining chapters of the book represent an attempt to give a picture of a coherent chain of events centered around the facts given above. Chapters II-III are devoted to the formation of the Sasanian State and its first political successes and hypotheses are suggested about the nature of kings power in Persia in the 3rd century (under Papak, Artashir I, and Shapur I). The Sasanian shahanshahs were at that time the wost powerful lay and spiritual rulers of the country. The Sasanide’s’ rule in Iran is analogical in character to the Sasanian’s’ rule in the region of Pars in the previous period. Probably Iran was in some way a con federation of half-independent domains containing with their ancient local dynasties and «domain» of the king of kings and the so called «king’s towns». Under the first Sasanides the «domain» expanded and the local dynasties lost their independence. This process brought about a tendency to separatism from the individual rulers which led to a severe internal crisis at the end of th3rd century.

 

The fourth chapter is devoted to the formation of the «Sasanian state zoroastrianism». The basic sources of this chapter are taken from the four inscriptions of the high priest Kartir. Their content and the examination of a number of toreutic, reliefs, coins makes it possible to draw some approximate conclusions about the nature of the codification of the zoroastrian sacred textes undertaken by Kartir and about the nature and aims of this codification. The strenge thening of the priesthood and its role in the state modified in particular the nature of king’s power — during Kartir’s time there was a strong tendency to the creation of a theocratic state, which likewise led to an internal crisis in the country.

 

Chapters V-VI are devoted to a description of this crisis, based in the main on information taken from the inscription of Narseh in Paikuli and also from the valuable testimony of coins, reliefs and other works of art.

 

 

 

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